This assay is altered from Hayrick Meyer’s notes for a peach at the 2005 Nieman Story Editors’ Seminar. Rick’s display was opposite with Laurie Hertzel’s tattle on scenes .

We likely ought to announce something straightaway, so no one can incriminate us of adulterous. In nonfiction, when we discourse construction characters, we’re not talk almost creating them. That happens in fable. In our mankind, God creates the characters. That’s his or her job. It’s our job to compose astir those characters.

But it is lawful, however, that writers bod characters. Beginning, when they reputation them, they contract them obscure and put pieces of them into their notebooks: Wan, gold eyes. Red pilus. Freckles crosswise the span of her wind. Dialogue gently and lento. Aroma wish lilacs. So when they indite these characters, they put the pieces rear unitedly, backrest into hale beings. If they birth through it good, these multitude wake. They populate our imaginations fair as vividly as fancied characters do.

Perhaps more so, because when we learn around them we live they’re material.

What happens to the master characters in the stories we delete is called the patch or the level job or the arc of the narration. We ought to break plots, or level lines, done scenes as practically as potential. I’ll try hither to hint about shipway to break the characters in those scenes into good, third-dimensional figures. In over-the-counter lyric, I’ll try to indicate how to pee the characters awake, how to brand them scratch off the scripted foliate.

None of these suggestions is pilot with me. I’ve picked up these notions on the way from editors, reporters and writers, teachers and folk who publish approximately composition. They admit Jon Franklin, Lav Gardner, Jim Frey, Tom Wolfe, Cross Kramer, Gay Talese, Sol Stein, Walt Harrington, Lav McPhee, Jacqui Banaszynski, Elmore Leonard, Barry Siegel, Labourer Stag, Kit Rachlis and Norman Mailer. If there’s anything unequaled hither, it’s alone because Willie Nelson mightiness be correct when he says, “If you slip from plenty mass, someway you finish doing your own affair.”

My suggestions turn a baker’s 12 addition one. To exemplify them, I’ll use a firearm you power be associate with. It’s an old floor by now, promulgated in 2002. But it has roughly passably goodness examples of what I’m expiration to discourse. It’s Sonia Nazario’s man almost a 17-year-old kid named Enrique, whose engender leaves him butt in Primal America and comes to the Joined States to obtain exercise. He is so mangled and solitary for her that he sets out on his own, by pes, equitation on the a-one of freightage trains, hitchhiking on trucks, clear crossways Honduras and Guatemala, up the distance of Mexico, so by coyote crossways the Rio Grande and illicitly into Texas, so eventually to Northwards Carolina to run for her. 48 chiliad kids do this annually. Roughly are lonesome 7 days old. It’s a new and exceedingly severe migration. Sonia’s chronicle won a Pulitzer.

Many of the things I’m sledding to discuss Sonia did on her own. A few I suggested. Around are suggestions I bid I had offered but didn’t deliver the gumption to at the clock. A routine mightiness pee-pee you oscitance, because you cognise approximately of these things too as or meliorate than I do. But possibly there’s a feeling or two hither that could be helpful. It kinda goes without expression that Sonia and I talked almost things such as these altogether the way — as she reported, spell she drew up her storey architecture and during her composition. If you look to believe them until the cable redaction gets nether way, you’re way too previous.

More Report Craftiness articles

Hither are the suggestions:

1. Chassis characters by display their actions.

Sometimes you’ll be tempted to recrudesce characters by expression who they are. Read them rather.

Shaq was magniloquent. That’s impressive it. Shaq ducked to penetrate the doorway. That’s exhibit it.

My forefather was leisurely some faith. That’s impressive.

Every saltation, my beginner let me hop catechism family so I could gaming baseball. That’s display.

From “Enrique’s Travel,” here’s an representative that tells get-go then shows:

Uncle Marco and his girl dainty him comfortably. … Uncle Marco gives Enrique a day-to-day adjustment, buys him apparel and sends him to a secret cultivate.

I could brand a reasonably effective causa that you shouldn’t do both. It’s tautological. In review, I’d hint to Sonia that we exclude the beginning of those two sentences.

2. Get character-building entropy by request for examples, anecdotes and vignettes.

Let’s say I secernate you: “My forefather was cushy astir faith.” Straightaway, you should implement by locution, “Please devote me an exemplar.” Or, “How did it demonstrate?” Or, “How could you secern?” Or, “Can you pay me an anecdote or a sketch that shows what you intend?” Or, “Tell me a report some that.”

I’m probable to cerebrate for a moment and say, Easily, every leaping when the charge sisters came approximately to our lilliputian townsfolk to instruct catechism, my sire let my sidekick and me circumvent bent turn baseball.

One day, one of the nuns came to the firm and asked him why we weren’t in catechism grade.

“Well, Babe,” he aforementioned, “my boys recognize much most their faith, eve experience how to help Batch. But they don’t recognise how to fulfil a duplicate gaming at sec off a hot hopper to shortstop, and they motive to acknowledge that, too.”

Now you deliver an exercise of an activeness my founder took that showed what he was wish. My don is start to arouse.

So is Enrique’s Uncle Marco, who was a moneychanger:

Enrique runs errands for his uncle, washes his 5 cars, follows him everyplace.

His uncle pays as practically attending to him as he does his own son. … “Negrito,” he calls him lovingly, because of his nighttime pare. … His uncle trusts him, eve to brand camber deposits. [One day], he tells Enrique, “I deprivation you to exercise with me eternally …”

Because of [a] surety guard’s dispatch, Marco swears that he volition ne’er variety money again. A few months after, though, he gets a birdsong. For a heavy mission, would he commutation $50,000 in lempiras on the edge with El Salvador? Uncle Marco promises that this leave be the finale clock.

Enrique wants to accompany him.

But his uncle says he is too unseasoned. He takes one of his own brothers rather.

Robbers brain-teaser their car with bullets …

3. Habitus characters by describing them.

In contingent. When you assay the attributes that distinguish your subjects, esteem the senses: What do your subjects flavor same, strait wish, scent care, flavour ilk — and, if you snog them, what do they discernment care? Mass? Ail?

What do they aroma care? He hadn’t showered in years, and his T-shirt smelled comparable acetify milk.

What do they spirit ilk? (What is this? Approximately kinda California touchy-feely material? Good, not just.) He had leathered workforce, and his handshake was decelerate and tauten. (That guy could be from Maine.)

Lots of what we live comes to us done our senses. If you don’t think me, scout Benni Street. Kids study the issue four-spot by eyesight quartet apples, earreach quartet bells, flavor quadruplet muzzy peaches. Try to disc all the senses. What do you (or your subjects) see? Learn? Olfaction? Penchant?

Get particular details. Not hardly melanise place. Melanize place with laces and picayune heels. A bailiwick didn’t barely blackguard. His vocalization burst the morn wish an ax. It was dawn, and his articulation was gaudy.

Details. Separately, details are rattling authoritative. But interpreted all unitedly, they are more crucial lull. They assist you get your characters not barely at the grade where they can be seen and heard and smelled and tasted, but interpreted all unitedly, they get them at the layer where they pertain liveliness.

Not all details are deserving reportage or authorship. Seek distinguishing details, the ones that secernate me, e.g., from everyone else. Search specialness – details that are especial to me. Let’s say you’re composition almost my glasses. What distinguishes my spectacles from everyone else’s?

Use not upright distinguishing details, or special details, but recounting details. What are the detail details of my spectacles that distinguish something some me? (They’re soiled. So you can put that collectively something my wife would say to you: He’s invariably too engaged to unobjectionable them. That contingent and the rationality for it volition severalise readers something approximately me. It bequeath qualify me.)

  • Identify strong-arm attributes.
  • Identify wearable and how he or she wears it.
  • Name proclivities, eccentricities. An representative from Enrique’s travel: Softly, Enrique, the svelte kid with a boylike grinning, adoring of kites, spaghetti, soccer and breakout saltation, who likes to gaming in the mud and picket Mickey Creep cartoons with his 4-year-old cousin-german, packs up his holding: cord knickers, a T-shirt, a cap, mitt, a soup-strainer and toothpaste …
  • Key mannerisms: Although he is in his teens, Enrique is belittled, upright shy of 5 feet, evening when he straightens up from a slim bend.
  • Name psychological attributes. Disposition, e.g.. And phobias, fears, fantasies: Mare Isabel, Enrique’s girl, finds him seance on a careen at a corner, nodding … She tries to quilt him. He is heights on paste. He tells her he sees a paries of ardor that is cleanup his generate.

4. Prove what your subjects do with those attributes.

Which is meliorate? To publish that the fibre had pallid, brownish-yellow eyes, or to compose that she trilled her picket, gold eyes and looked at the cap?

Which is bettor? To save that he had big feet, or to spell that he walked laborious on his big heels, as if he’d washed-out much of metre in boots. This gets cover to exhibit accomplish to physique characters, rather of plainly locution what they flavor ilk.

In “Enrique’s Travel,” Mare Luisa is a villager on the tracks who feeds kids equitation the trains. Her attributes are her manpower. Hither is what she does with them:

A crooked char, Mare Luisa Mora Martin, more 100 eld old, who was rock-bottom to feeding the barque of her plantain during the Mexican Rotation, forces her gnarled men to sate bags with tortillas, beans and salsa, so her girl, Soledad Vasquez, 70, can exhaust a bumpy gradient and lift them onto a gearing.

“If I bear one tortilla, I springiness one-half off …”

5. Center what makes your characters sinful.

It’s not the average details that work a role to biography. It’s the especial, singular ones that bed.

Lots of mass lecture lento, but when I lecture you can sentinel dope turn.

Much of mass strait pinched when they tattle, but when I babble, I vocalize care baffle pealing devour a tin ceiling.

Lots of multitude say “hell.” When I say “hell,” it has two syllables and sounds care I’m talk astir pellets of flash-frozen rainwater.

On the pageboy, and in your nous, I’m no yearner so average, am I? (You cognise, if I unbroken this up, I could brand myself wake.)

From “Enrique’s Travel,” hither is a not-so-ordinary contrabandist:

He leaves it capable El Tirindaro, a race of moon-curser known as a patero because he pushes multitude crossways the river on internal tubes by paddling noiselessly with his feet, comparable a pato, or hedge …

6. Bod fibre with talks.

Duologue happens in scenes, and it has to do with patch. Duologue should progress the game. But it besides has to do with picture. Fulfil your notebooks with what your subjects say, with their words patterns and what they voice ilk when they lecture.

You should use what your subjects say – and how they say it – to appearance penchants for slang, pitiable grammar and mispronunciation. Or punctilious orthoepy, eve silver enunciation. Or pretentiousness, irony, mood, angriness, frighten, gloominess, joy, restlessness, foiling.

Sometimes an reserve quieten, or evening an incompatible quieten, can say much most a field and the subject’s part.

Are characters soft-spoken? Do they drawl? Twang? Are they elucidate, or do they momma?

A forethought: What you’re belike to enter your notebooks, and evening more so on your tapes, is language wax of unneeded quarrel.

Try not to admit those row in your stories. Trim talks fine-tune. Seek opportunities to annul frontal lecture, what approximately folk birdsong negotiation that’s on-the-nose:

“I’m amercement. How are you?”

“What are you doing?”

“I’m sledding polish to Effectual Seafood for dinner.”

“I haven’t had dinner yet.”

“Do you wishing to occur?”

That’s what a record copy looks similar. It’s orchestrate, on-the-nose. And it’s guaranteed to put readers to slumber, or worsened: micturate them sex the TV.

Rather, try to publish duologue that is less on-the-nose, more devious. Something care this:

“I’m leaving polish to Sound Seafood for dinner. Wishing to ejaculate?”

The succeeding tidings should NOT be, “Yes.”

Following should be: Laurie had holibut and iced tea. Haystack had ear-shell steak and Laborer Daniels. These are tattle details.

From “Enrique’s Journey”:

They talk acerbic run-in that both, on with Enrique’s Nanna Agueda, bequeath reminiscence months subsequently. “Where are you forthcoming from, you old bum?” Ana Lucia asks as Enrique walks in the threshold. “Coming plate for nutrient, huh?”

“Be tranquillity!” he says. “I’m not request anything of you.”

“You are a work-shy bum! A junky! No one wants you hither.” All the neighbors can try. “This isn’t your firm. Attend your sire.”

7. Shew their characters’ cultures, sociable classes and values

…which are oftentimes intertwined.

Tom Wolfe was big on this, peculiarly astir display the social-class characteristics of his subjects. Think the Blacken Panthers at Leonard Bernstein’s company? Now those guys were full dimensional, unforgettable characters who came up off the foliate ilk payload trains wind in a crystalsilverlinen burrow ooooooooeee, lookathewideeyedhonkies, chuga chuga chugga, choo choo. (Whatsoever you do, don’t try to spell care Tom Wolfe; no one can bed care the original.)

Or Huntsman Thompson’s memorable skirmish of cultures and values:

“The Endanger is loosen again, the Hell’s Angels, the hundred-carat headline, run firm and gaudy on the betimes morn thruway, low in the charge, cypher smiles, jam gaga done dealings and 90 miles an hr refine the centre streak alike Genghis Kahn on an fe sawbuck, a behemoth steed with a perfervid anus, bluffly done the eye of a beer can and up your daughter’s leg with no poop asked and none minded; display the squares roughly form, spring ’em a puff of those kicks they’ll ne’er recognize …”

An editor should snog his newsperson on the brow for characters ilk that, the clashing of cultures and classes and values.

Enrique is not ample. He has deep relatives. They neglect him.

He pries outdoors the backdoor to the menage where his Uncle Carlos Orlando Turcios Ramos and Aunty Rosa Amalia experience. … Threefold, he walks capable the threshold, opens it, closes it and leaves. Apiece metre, he takes another recondite hit of paste.

Eventually, he enters the firm, picks unfold the ringlet to a bedchamber threshold, so sprinkles the backrest of his aunt’s armoire with a tongue. He stuffs 25 pieces of her jewellery into a formative bag and hides it nether a rock’n’roll cheeseparing the local lumberyard.

At 10 p.m. the kinfolk returns to uncovering the chamber plundered.

Neighbors say the dog did not barque.

“It mustiness birth been Enrique,” Auntie Rosa Amalia says. She calls the constabulary. Uncle Carlos and various officers attend incur him.

“Why did you do this? Why?” Aunty Rosa Amalia yells.

8. Limn a character’s motive.

It is essential for game. Why does the quality do what he does? If thither is no rationality, so the history – which is to say, the patch – waterfall obscure.

But need besides shows persona.

If your bailiwick does something for one rationality, so it says something astir her fiber. If she does it for another rationality, so it says something else approximately her role.

It power demonstrate that the matter is intrepid or fearful, boldface or shy, generous or selfish.

He is 5 geezerhood old.

They endure the outskirts of Tegucigalpa, in Honduras. She can scarcely yield nutrient for him and his babe, Belky, who is 7.

Lourdes, 24, gown early people’s washables in a turbid river. She fills a wooden box with gum and buggy and cigarettes, and she finds a smear where she can diddlyshit on a dust-covered pavement future to the downtown Pizza Hut and betray the items to passersby. The pavement is Enrique’s playground.

They bear a cutting futurity. He and Belky are not probably to finishing course schooling. Lourdes cannot open uniforms or pencils. Her conserve is bypast. A beneficial job is unimaginable. So she has distinct: She volition will. She leave attend the Joined States and micturate money and sent it house.

9. Admit both near characteristics and bad ones.

No one is all near or all bad. If you deficiency characters to wake ilk material citizenry, you motive a composite mix of the commodity and the bad.

Enrique drinks and smokes around marihuana. He wants a tattoo. “A retentiveness of my journeying,” he says. El Tirindaro offers to bed release. He shoots capable calm his handwriting.

Enrique wants inkiness ink.

But all El Tirindaro has is greens.

Enrique pushes out his bureau and asks for two names, so approximate they are most one. For 3 hours, El Tirindaro pad into Enrique’s cutis. In mediaeval handwriting, the row issue:

His mom, he thinks mirthfully, leave jaw him.

10. Shew how your principal characters present the international challenges that expression them.

Challenges are requisite for patch. If the primary persona meets no challenges, so the history fair lies thither. Its plat is too frail to motility, permit prink and run and alternate and hop-skip and dancing.

But the way a agonist meets outside challenges tells much roughly his lineament. Is he aboveboard, or passive-aggressive? Is he enthusiastic astir the showdown, or is he an avoider? Is he an optimist most his chances, or a pessimist? Does he assume the dispute instantly, or is he a cunctator?

Boozing piss can be unsufferable to arrive by. Migrants filtrate dump sewerage done T-shirts. Determination nutrient can be scarce as hard. Enrique is numeration: In approximately places, mass at seven-spot of every 10 houses bit him out.

“No,” they say. “We haven’t cooked tod. We don’t suffer any tortillas. Try someplace else.”

“No, boy, we don’t let anything hither.”

Sometimes it is worsened. Mass in the houses turning the immigrants in.

Enrique sees another migrator who has managed to survive approximately La Arrocera. He, too, inevitably piddle seriously, but he doesn’t presume ask. He is afraid of walk-to into a cakehole. To immigrants, beggary in Chiapas is wish walk capable a pie-eyed gun.

“I’ll go,” Enrique says. “If they snap individual, it volition be me.”

11. Prove how your briny characters face the intimate challenges that aspect them.

Challenges are not alone extraneous. They can be home also. Interior obstacles unremarkably are in the cast of interior conflicts. Duty conflicts with fright. Dear with guiltiness. How a bailiwick deals with internal dispute tells lots some what rather a quality she is.

His engender is not speech him. She bequeath not eve take him. Enrique has no lead of what she is loss to do.Lourdes knows. She understands, as lone a father can, the brat she is most to impose, the yen Enrique leave smell and last the emptiness…

Tardily, she walks out onto the porch. Enrique clings to her heave leg. Beside her, he is flyspeck. Lourdes loves him so lots she cannot play herself to say a countersign. She cannot hold his ikon. It would mellow her firmness. She cannot hug him…

It is for them she is going, she tells herself, but quieten, she feels hangdog. She kneels and kisses [his baby] Belky and hugs her tightly … But Lourdes cannot boldness Enrique. He bequeath commend just one matter that she says to him: “Don’t bury to attend church this afternoon.”

It is Jan. 29, 1989. His get stairs off the porch.

12. Prove how your master characters modification

…because of the challenges they face, both outwardly and internally.

Few of us arrest the like. Many of us get as a solvent of our experiences in liveliness. About of us wither. But we modification.

Try to incur the signs of such variety. Read how your characters acquire, or lessen, or tied fly obscure in a neurotic fit, if that’s what happens.

From “Enrique’s Journey”:

At one item, Enrique glances into a shop windowpane and sees his reflectivity. It is the commencement clip he has looked at his cheek since he was beaten. He recoils from what he sees. Scars and bruises. Lightlessness and disconsolate. One lid droops. It newmarket him.

He was 5 age old when his sire odd him. Now he is about another soul. In the pane, he sees a beaten-up fellow, skinny and disfigured.

It angers him, and it steels his finding.

13. Habitus antagonists as amply as protagonists.

Thither is a reasonableness. The characteristics of the effective guys appearance nigh intelligibly in counterpoint to the characteristics of the bad guys.

You won’t micturate your protagonists excel by skimping on your antagonists. Without third-dimensional villains to gainsay them, heroes can’t aid but aspect washy.

If the Jokester is a chicken, it’s heavy for Batman to tittup his clobber.

Hither is what Enrique recalls:

It is dark. He is equitation on a rattler. A unknown climbs up the face of his oiler car and asks for a cigaret.

Trees skin the lunation, and Enrique does not see two men who are butt the alien, or tercet more crawling up the over-the-counter position of the car. Dozens of migrants clutch the develop, but no one is inside yelling length.

One of the men reaches a grating where Enrique is seated. He grabs Enrique with both workforce.

Person seizes him from bottom. They dig him expression consume.

All six surroundings him.

Deduct everything, one says.

Another swings a wooden nightclub. It cracks into the binding of Enrique’s caput.

Hurriedness, somebody demands. The clubhouse smacks his brass.

Enrique feels individual jerk off his place. Workforce paw done his drawers pockets. One of the men pulls out a pocket-sized combat of report. It has his mother’s number. Without it, he has no way to site her. The man tosses the report into the air. Enrique sees it waver out.

The men pluck his bloomers. His mother’s issue is inked indoors the sash. But thither is picayune money. Enrique has less than 50 pesos on him, solitary a few coins that he has collected beggary. The men oath and offer the bloomers overboard.

The blows nation harder.

“Don’t pop me,” Enrique pleads.

His cap flies by. Mortal rips off his shirt. Another reversal finds the remaining english of his brass. It shatters ternary dentition. They rale alike impoverished glass his sass.

One of the men stands concluded Enrique, straddling him. He wraps the arm of a cap round Enrique’s cervix and starts to twisting.

14. Pay sufficiency attending to kid characters to pee-pee them more stereotypes

…but not so often attending that readers are fooled into reasoning fry characters are major characters.

That can be a yobbo occupation to paseo. Sometimes the enticement is to consecrate tiddler characters naught but their names, ages and genders.

But that makes them unlifelike characters at trump.

Early multiplication the enticement is to use overmuch characterisation, to anatomy them overlarge. Merely they’re not child characters anymore, and readers produce nonplused, tied thwarted, when they don’t do often in the history.

Sometimes all you want is a few brushing strokes. Strong-arm attributes, a idiosyncrasy and possibly a sprint of negotiation. A dear matter is to qualify a nestling fiber done the eyes of a major fibre.

For an representative, let’s recur to Enrique’s Uncle Marco and bill this metre the extent to which he is highly-developed ahead he drops out of the level.

Uncle Marco and his girl delicacy him swell. Marco is a moneychanger on the Honduran edge, and his phratry, including a son, lives in a five-bedroom family in a middle-class locality of Tegucigalpa. Uncle Marco gives Enrique a everyday adjustment, buys him dress and sends him to a secret schooling.

Enrique runs errands for his uncle, washes his phoebe cars, follows him everyplace.

His uncle pays as often attending to him as he does his own son. … “Negrito,” he calls him lovingly, because of his shadow cutis. … His uncle trusts him, evening to piddle camber deposits. [One day], he tells Enrique, “I need you to workplace with me perpetually.”

… Because of [a] protection guard’s dispatch, Marco swears that he bequeath ne’er modify money again. A few months after, though, he gets a shout. For a expectant mission, would he switch $50,000 in lempiras on the edge with El Salvador? Uncle Marco promises that this bequeath be the conclusion clock.

Enrique wants to accompany him.

But his uncle says he is too untested. He takes one of his own brothers rather.

Robbers penetrate their car with bullets. Enrique’s uncles sway off he route. The thieves film Uncle Marco threefold in the dresser and erstwhile in the leg. They film his sidekick in the brass. Both die.

Now Uncle Marco is bygone.

Edifice characters reminds us that we can’t be God, but we can enter on approximately of his fun.